мой волшебный мир кулинарии и творчества (laura_mz) wrote,
мой волшебный мир кулинарии и творчества
laura_mz

Мой хлеб и мои сомнения (proportions of the bread dough ingredients)

Пеку хлеб много лет. Была у меня хлебопечка, отдала я её, потому что мне больше нравится печь хлеб подовый - в духовке.
Иногда то, что испеклось, мне не совсем нравится. Я подумала, может пропорции дрожжи-мука-жидкость надо как-то отрегулировать... Решила собрать инфо с инета и делать всё по науке ))
Хотя понимаю, что здесь присутствует не только простая математика в граммах и миллилитрах, а ещё и многофакторная система внешних условий и состояния самих продуктов....

This section is from the book "Foods And Household Management", by Helen Kinne. Also available from Amazon: Foods and Household Management.

Proportions Of The Bread Ingredients

One part of water to three of flour, or one cup to three of flour for a loaf, is an average proportion. The practiced bread maker will vary this slightly to suit the variations in the flour from time to time, but it is a safe rule for the beginner to follow. Winter wheat flour requires somewhat more water than the spring wheat, or the blend of the two. Salt should be used sparingly, for although it improves the flavor of the loaf, salt is a preservative which retards or prevents the growth of lower organisms, and in the case of bread it acts therefore as a check to fermentation. One teaspoonful to a loaf is the largest amount that it is best to use.

На фото те хлеба, что удачно получились и были съедены с большим удовольствием... :)




The quantity of yeast depends upon several conditions. The larger the amount of yeast used, the shorter is the time of rising, and as many as two compressed yeast cakes may be used to one loaf if it is necessary to hasten the process, without any perceptible effect on the color, texture or flavor. If a very large amount of yeast is used, the bread is "crumbly," and a difference in flavor will be noticed. A smaller amount may be used if time is allowed for the rising, even § cake of compressed yeast to a loaf, if the bread is to rise over night in warm weather. It must be remembered that, if the rising process is too prolonged, other organisms have a chance to work, and the bread may sour.

A small amount of sugar hastens fermentation, and from one to two teaspoonfuls to a loaf may be used. Many people prefer the flavor of bread with no sugar, however. Some bakers use malt extract both as a yeast food to hasten fermentation and for its effect upon the flavor.

Courtesy of the Dept. of Foods and Cookery, Teachers College.

Courtesy of the Dept. of Foods and Cookery, Teachers College.

Fig. 55. - A few loaves of bread.

Fat, or shortening, should be sparingly used, not more than one or two teaspoonfuls being allowed to a loaf. If you study a number of bread recipes, you will see that this ingredient varies more than the others. As a matter of fact, if the flour is of good quality and the bread well made, this ingredient is not necessary (in loaf bread at least), although it seems to improve the quality of biscuit and rolls.



Yeast Doughs - General Proportions

Sugar

Shortening

Liquid

Yeast Cake

Flour

Eggs

Bread.....

1 tsp.

1/2 oz. +

i cup

1/4 to 1

3 cups

• • •

Muffins. .. .

1 tbs.

1/2 oz.

1 cup

1/4to 1

2 cups

1 +

Rolls

1 tbs.

1 oz.

1 cup

1/2 to 1

3 cups

• •

Fancy Rolls.

2 tbs.

2 OZ.

1 cup

1/4 to 1

3 cups +

1 +

Buns......

1/2 cup

2 OZ.

1 cup

1/2 to 1

3 cups+

• • ••

Coffee Cake

1/4 cup

2 OZ.

1/2 cup

1/4 to 1

2 Clips

2 +


Source

computing percentages of a formula

We will begin with a straightforward recipe for white bread:

flour 50 pounds
water 33 pounds
salt 1 pound
yeast 0.6 pound

As mentioned above, when using baker's percentage, the flour is represented as 100%, and all the other ingredients are expressed as a percentage of the flour's weight. We can begin to express the formula as follows:

flour 50 pounds 100%
water 33 pounds _%
salt 1 pound _%
yeast 0.6 pound _%

To determine the percentage of the other ingredients, we divide each one by the weight of the flour, and then multiply the result (which is in decimal form) by 100 to convert it to a percent.

For example, to calculate the percentage of water, we divide it by the flour and multiply by 100:

(33 ÷ 50) x 100 = 66%

When we follow the same method, we arrive at the following values for the salt and yeast:

flour 50 pounds 100%
water 33 pounds 66%
salt 1 pound 2%
yeast 0.6 pound 1.2%

Source

How much yeast to use when baking bread

The amount of yeast to use varies depending on your patience, the weight of the dough, the anticipated rise time, and more.

Proportion or Ratio of Flour to Yeast

One packet of dry yeast per 3 cups of flour

0.5% of the weight of the dry flour in the recipe.

For example, for 500 grams of flour, use about 2.5 grams of yeast. This is just under 1 teaspoon.

Common weights and measures for yeast

A packet of dry yeast is about 1.25 teaspoons.

A tablespoon of granular yeast is 10 grams of yeast.

A teaspoon of granular yeast is about 3 1/3 grams

What changes the proportions when baking bread?

If you are not patient, use more yeast if the dough is heavier (with more water, or whole wheat or bread flours), or you have cooler rising temperatures and you want a higher or quick rise.

Personally, I would go with patient, cooler rises with long rise times (say...65 degrees fahrenheit, and 12 hour rise times) - this leads to full, complex flavors and breads that keep well.

Recipes - well designed recipes - will provide yeast proportions, and are good starting points. With bread baking experience, your changes (such as providing longer rise times, or adding in other grains), will provide you clues for changing the proportions of yeast.

Source
Tags: breadmaking, my bread, my kitchen, xлебопечение
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